Značka: zero-knowledge

Panther protocol co-founder Oliver Gale discusses bringing zero-knowledge technology to multi-chain

Privacy coins and zero-knowledge technology, which some use to obfuscate the identity of sends/receivers and transaction amounts, have gained enormous popularity in recent years due to mounting regulatory surveillance against the crypto sector. But despite their rapid rise in market cap, critics continue to scrutinize such class of assets as enablers for masking illicit activities.In an exclusive interview with Cointelegraph, Oliver Gale, CEO, and co-founder of the Panther Protocol (ZKP), elaborated on the technology behind its privacy decentralized finance, or DeFi, solutions and why it’s necessary for today’s crypto space:CT: How much did you raise from your recent token sale, and what does your roadmap look like from here?OG: We’ve raised over $30 million in total. For Panther protocol, we did several private sale rounds, and then we did a public sale on November the 23rd, which was 90 minutes long, and raised over $20 million during that time. The second question is around the roadmap itself, so Panther Protocol is a multi-chain privacy protocol with several zero-knowledge, data disclosure tools built into it; what we’re delivering in January is our minimum viable product (MVP).We have multiple deployments this month. And that will be delivering an MVP that allows staking on Polygon and transferability of the ERC-20 token to ZKP token. And then, I estimate 30 to 60 days later; we’re going to deploy the complete v1.0 MVP, which will have the multi-asset privacy pools and multi-asset staking pools that are the shielded tools in which Panther assets can use be transacted privately. And that will also come with a version of ZK reveals, which is the mechanism by which users can voluntarily disclose their transaction data for compliance purposes or tax reporting purposes, etc. So that’s what can be expected across Q1.We have over five EVM compatible partnerships in place to deploy Panther v1 on Near, Flare, etc. These shielded pools are being deployed across different chains. And then, our team is building a ZK-driven interchange across other chains, and the goal is to allow these assets to be swapped securely, with low fees, low and high transaction throughput.CT: What’s the underlying cryptography behind these assets?OG: So the multi-asset shielded pools are based on ZK-SNARKS. So you have a combination. The shielded pools are, you know, a version of mixer technology with the ability to split join transfer assets. Then we use ZK snarks for proof of ownership. So essentially, transactions happen within the multi-asset shielded pools. And, and then the mechanism for data disclosure reveals is another ZK snark circuit, which is set up to allow Essentially a trusted provider to provide proof that can be verified on the planter network of some data condition being met. And that while it’s been applied to compliance is our first use case, and were put in ZK reveals into production with launched out, which is essentially a launch is launched out is what it sounds like.CT: Skeptics would say that private networks using zero-knowledge cryptography could become enablers of illicit transactions. What are your thoughts on the matter?OG: In my view, if you build technology and have no intention of facilitating aiding and abetting or enabling crime, you are not guilty of any crime. But why is privacy needed? Our white paper has this; the bottom line is that actors who are under surveillance behave differently from those who are not. In other words, the exact behavior of our societies is impacted by being watched. So inevitably, there are going to be bad actors. But I’ve never seen a gun on trial. You don’t put tools on trial; you put people on trial. And the overwhelming consensus of our global society, for all of the tools and technologies we use, is that if the device is more beneficial for the majority than the minority who abuse it, then you use it. And if that weren’t the case, then I’m not sure we would have any kitchen knives because knives are used for criminal activity by a minority. So any attempt to put privacy technology or blockchain technology on trial because a minority abused the system is an argument that can be extrapolated to anything in life.

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Zero-knowledge scaling tech Plonky goes live on Polygon

On Monday, Polygon (MATIC), a layer two Ethereum (ETH) scaling solution known for its fast transaction times and negligible gas fees, announced the launch of Plonky2, a zero-knowledge scaling technology claimed to be the fastest in the world. Zero-knowledge algorithms ensure everything is correctly computed on layer two and return the succinct proof to Ethereum without sending the entire data. Instead of every miner, or staker, verifying every posted transaction, zero-knowledge allows the verification of simplified rolled-up proofs, thereby significantly speeding up the overall network.1/2 We are proud to announce Plonky2, the world’s fastest ZK scaling tech! Plonky2 is a recursive SNARK that is ~100x faster than existing alternatives! Furthermore, it is Ethereum compatible (it can prove Ethereum transactions and proofs can be verified on Ethereum). https://t.co/al62Wl2xpm— Mihailo Bjelic (@MihailoBjelic) January 11, 2022As told by Polygon, recursive zero-knowledge proofs were largely theoretical in 2014. By 2019, it took about 120 seconds to generate them. In 2020, that number fell to 60 seconds. This year, Plonky2 is set to allow such proofs to be generated in just 0.17 seconds. The network’s developers allege that it is 100x faster than existing alternatives.Such class of algorithms could potentially enable horizontal or linear scaling of blockchains in the future. Nodes do not need to store the history of the blockchain’s transactions to be up and running, thereby increasing the network’s capacity with each one added.Polygon has committed $1 billion to the development of zero-knowledge technologies. In August, Polygon merged with the zero-knowledge blockchain Hermez network for $250 million worth of MATIC tokens. In December, it announced the allocation of up to 250 million MATIC tokens to a deal with cryptography startup Mir. That firm specializes in the PLONK and Halo subcategories of zero-knowledge algorithms, with the latter not needing a trusted setup at all for the verification of proofs.

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Here's how Polygon is challenging the limitations of Ethereum, as told by co-founder Sandeep Nailwal

Polygon (MATIC), a layer-two network designed for scaling and application infrastructure development on Ethereum (ETH), has been making the rounds among blockchain enthusiasts as of late. From its $1 billion investment into zero-knowledge technology to co-launching a $200 million Web 3.0 social media initiative up to integrating with Opera’s web browser to make its decentralized apps accessible to 80 million Android mobile users, the network’s momentum is going strong. But partnerships and business aside, the technological capacities of the network, especially when compared to Ethereum, are also attracting the attention of many blockchain developers. In an exclusive interview with Cointelegraph, Polygon co-founder Sandeep Nailwal talked about the extent of the network’s adoption.Cointelegraph: What are the current gas prices and transaction speeds for Polygon? And how does that compare to Ethereum?Sandeep Nailwal (SN): From the Polygon Scan Explorer, you can see that the average block time is around 2.3 seconds. As for Ethereum, that is 15 seconds. And then the gas fees, you can see 0.001 MATIC tokens; this is a point fraction of a penny.CT: Have there been any notable nonfungible token (NFT) drops on the Polygon network recently?SN: None of them have become like CryptoPunks or anything, but I think Polygon’s biggest kind of support is from the gaming companies […] They all added to NFT. If you go to market, talk to any random 10 different gaming teams, they will tell you six to seven are building on Polygon.But the notable drops on NFT, the biggest, have been Dolce and Gabbana, the brand. They made a $7 million sale recently. There are other big luxury premium watch brands, and these guys are coming in. Apart from that […] Elon Musk minted an NFT. Jack Dorsey minted NFT of his first-ever tweet, and […] Mark Cuban — all those were on Polygon networks only.#NFT sales have seen astronomical growth since 2020.2020 total sales: $340 million2021 total sales: $9 billion (so far)Let’s see what happens in 2022, with NFTs in sports, gaming, and #metaverses now gaining traction. https://t.co/VDD8v2YwVo via @cointelegraph— Waz (@DaveWaslen) November 30, 2021CT: What are some popular decentralized apps built on the Polygon blockchain? And what does their total value locked (TVL) look like?SN: Polygon is now used by all the decentralized finance applications in Ethereum. The only one remaining was Uniswap. And the community signaled a week back that they are also launching on Polygon now. So as for the popular DApps, I would say Uniswap, Aave, Decentraland, etc. I think the TVL across the bridges is around $5 billion or $6 billion.CT: What is your objective for investing in zero-knowledge technology?SN: We had committed $1 billion for zero-knowledge technology, which we believe is the holy grail of blockchain scaling. And privacy is the second element — that’s one thing where everybody gets confused. So you use ZK to verify computations back on Ethereum without sending back the entire data. Instead, you simply provide proof that everything was correctly computed on layer two and put a […] succinct proof back to Ethereum.CT: In your opinion, would further Ethereum upgrades empower the network’s capacity to match that of layer-two solutions?SN: Even if 2.0 comes in here, that will not provide enough scalability. Next year, the proof-of-stake [PoS] upgrade will keep everything the same; like Ethereum has 13 transactions per second [TPS] right now, maybe it will go to 20 TPS [after PoS], but not more than that. So that does not add anything to scalability. And let’s say in three to five years, even if the sharding comes, we’ll have a projection of 64 shards. And with each acting at 20 transactions per second, but that’s still 1,280 transactions per second overall, right? That’s still not enough for the entire world.Related: Uniswap v3 contracts deployment on Polygon approved with 99.3% consensusCT: What does Polygon’s adoption currently look like?SN: There are 3,000 plus active development teams on it. This was posted by Alchemy some time back. It should actually be up to 5,000. The daily active users on Polygon have become 50% more than Ethereum, and with gaming NFTs, we are seeing so much happening on Polygon. 

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ConsenSys launches Rollups for privacy-enabled transactions on Ethereum blockchain with support of Mastercard

On Thursday, ConsenSys, a prominent developer of Ethereum (ETH) software, announced the launch of enterprise software ConsSys Rollups. The service, designed on the basis of zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs, is meant to protect specific transaction elements, such as account balances, sender and recipient wallet addresses, and transaction amounts to secure each user’s privacy.Zero-knowledge proofs enable the validation of sensitive encrypted information, such as personal data, by nodes without revealing the data underneath. Such cryptographic techniques have gained enormous popularity in recent years, as users fear their crypto transactions are at-risk of being tracked by blockchain forensic firms such as a Chainalysis. The nature of public ledger blockchains has made all transactions available for anyone to view since their inception, making their underlying tokens less private than physical cash transactions in certain ways.The Rollups feature would be able to support privacy-enabled CBDCs, decentralized exchanges, micropayments, and taxes. “ConsenSys Rollups enables vastly more scalability in addition to strong privacy protections to both enhance solutions for existing use-cases and enable new use-cases. This innovative solution will help accelerate the building of the future of finance”, said Madeline Murray, global lead of protocol engineering at ConsenSys. Mastercards’ engineering team helped in part to design the solution.Raj Dhamodharan, Executive Vice President of Digital Assets and Blockchain Products and Partnerships at Mastercard, added:We’re in the early stages, but are starting to see efficiencies in how permissions and private chain product constructs use open-source technologies. Our work with partners like ConsenSys will continue to advance this space.Mastercard has taken a slow but steady approach to cryptocurrency adoption. In an interview with Cointelegraph Editor-in-Chief Kristina Cornèr the day prior, Mastercard’s executive VP of market development Liza Oakes said the company is “looking at CBDCs, stablecoins, and how to support their developments.”Very excited to announce the launch of @ConsenSys Rollups in partnership with @Mastercard to provide enterprise-grade scalability + address the key challenge of scalable applications on the @ConsenSysQuorum tech-stackhttps://t.co/NE6kuDBYW4— ConsenSys (@ConsenSys) December 16, 2021

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Polygon to invest up to 250M MATIC into zero-knowledge tech

Ethereum scaling solution Polygon has announced it will dedicate a maximum of 250 million MATIC tokens ($627.5 million) to a deal with zero-knowledge cryptography startup Mir.Zero-knowledge algorithms enable external validators to verify encrypted transactions or documents without revealing the sensitive information hidden underneath. It is useful for complex decentralized finance applications, such as decentralized ride-share apps or decentralized health insurance, where nodes need to verify the personal data of blockchain participants without risking privacy leaks.Mir specializes in developing two subcategories of zero-knowledge proofs: PLONK and Halo. Both represent advancements over previous SNARK and STARK cryptography techniques, allowing proofs to be generated in seconds.While PLONK still requires a trusted setup for validation, Halo algorithms can accomplish the task in a decentralized manner. Speed is a core design consideration in zero-knowledge proofs. Complex information to be passed over blockchains, such as redacted photo IDs, can take up substantial size, thereby affecting the applicability of transactions.“Polygon plans to focus on ZK cryptography as the end game for blockchain scaling,” said Sandeep Nailwal, co-founder of Polygon. “We have made a strategic decision to explore and encourage all meaningful scaling approaches and technologies at this stage. We believe this is the way to establish Polygon as the leading force and contributor in the ZK field and onboard the first billion users to Ethereum.”The acquisition of Mir is a part of a greater $1 billion commitment to developing zero-knowledge technology by Polygon.

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